In nature, succulents grow in arid areas, have great endurance to temperature fluctuations and lighting, but to provide the plant with proper care at home, you need to learn more about how to grow succulents.
How to transplant succulents
Choose pot and soil
Did you buy a new plant in the store, or are you thinking about replanting your home succulent? Let’s take a closer look at all the nuances and rules of planting. So that growing will bring you only joy!
You should start by choosing a pot. Choose the right pot size, it should be a couple of centimeters wider than your plant. For small fleshy individuals, such as Echeveria, Molodilo, Graftoweria, Pahiveria, Eyewitch, low clay or ceramic pots and cachepo will do. Examples of pots and decorations. For all succulents usually use wide and low pots, but for large individuals with a developed root system will fit an ordinary pot, with a drainage system.
Succulents are best transplanted in spring or summer, so if you bought a plant in winter, it is better to leave it in a bright place until spring without transplanting. Next, you need to buy drainage (fine expanded clay) and earth. Suitable store substrate for succulents and cacti neutral acidity, in which you can add coarse sand (if the sand is not from the store, it is worth burning on the stove), a little coconut substrate, or small stones like gravel or expanded clay, and charcoal.
The soil should be light, with good transmission of moisture and air. It is better to avoid high peat content in the substrate.
Wash the pot and all instruments with hot water before planting. From the plastic pot, the plant is easy to reach by pushing the walls in a circle. If the pot is ceramic, the soil in the plant must be dried. Gently turning over the pot, we take out our plant. Large plants can be transplanted with a coma ground (method of transshipment), and small plants are better to very carefully release the roots of the old substrate, by washing them in boiled water at room temperature.
At the bottom of the pot fall asleep drainage, if the pot is high, the drainage level of 5-7 cm, in the low enough 2-3 cm. Overlay the prepared substrate, which does not need to be tamped, leaving the top of the pot about 2 cm. Place the plant on the substrate, and fall asleep on top of the sand with small stones, hiding all the roots. You can fall asleep in the same substrate, but put a thin layer of fine expanded clay on top.
Put the transplanted plant in a bright place, avoiding drafts and direct sunlight.
Watering and lighting
Watering should be regular about 1-2 times a week in summer (it is possible less often by determining the softness of the leaf), and once every three weeks in winter. Always check that the topsoil is dry before the next watering. Stored or filtered room temperature water should be used. If your pot does not have a hole in the bottom, you should set a limit on the amount of liquid applied, about 5 ml at a time, if you see that the leaves of the plant have become less fleshy and soft, increase the amount of liquid applied.
The lighting should be good, you can choose the southern window, to accommodate your friend, but despite the fact that succulents well tolerate the open sunlight in the wild, in summer the plant is better to shade, and gradually get used to the bright sun after shopping in the store, and also after the cold season.
In some types of succulents, the coloring of leaves depends directly on the presence of sunlight. For example, the red color in the sun acquire such species as – Echeveria agaveoid, Eyeware red-colored, Echeveria pulidonis, Eyeware Nussbaumera.
Humidity and temperature
Succulents like wet rooms, but it is not worth spraying their leaves. It is better to use a humidifier in the apartment, or put the plant near the aquarium. If it is not possible to keep the humidity in the room, give the plant fresh air by opening a window or taking it out onto a balcony in summer. Avoid drafts.
Succulents are good at withstanding temperature fluctuations, especially during the day and night. Optimal temperature in summer is +25 -30 degrees during the day and 15-18 degrees at night (in summer you can move the plant on the balcony). In winter, the optimal temperature during the daytime is 15-20 degrees Celsius, at night 13-15.
It should be remembered that succulents should not be fed in winter, when they are at rest, and immediately after transplanting. Feeding can be done in spring – summer during the growth period, in moderate amounts. It is better to buy special fertilizers for cactuses and succulents in flower stores. If you choose from universal fertilizers, you should avoid excess nitrogen (N) in the composition, as it promotes rotting. It’s better to use fertilisers that have potassium (K) in their composition and phosphorus (P) in composition.
According to reviews, a good fertilizer for cactuses and succulents “Pokon” is estimated at 250ml.
Possible growing problems and diseases
Succulents rarely suffer from external pests, but it happens that in the roots of plants are imported thrips or nematodes (this happens if the land and filler were taken from the site and not properly treated). In this case, you will have to reproduce the plant with the tip (about the reproduction of succulents read in this article), or make a transplant with a complete cleaning of the roots from the old soil and treatment with disinfectant solutions.
Most often, inexperienced amateurs of succulents face such a problem as rotting a plant, which can quickly destroy the plant. In order to prevent rotting, it is recommended to follow the irrigation regime and add charcoal to the soil during transplantation.
Brown spots on leaves and shoots may mean that the plant has Botrytis Fungus, which may cause rotting of leaves. What to do: cut the affected leaves, reduce watering the plant (leave the soil dry for a couple of days), and treat the plant with a special solution of fungicide, for example, “Maxim”.
Brown spots, which have an unpleasant smell – it’s Erwinia bacteria, started in your plant. What to do: remove the damaged parts of the plant, reduce watering, and treat with manganese solution.
In order to prevent rot, you should water less often.
On the plant appeared unhealthy plaque of red or green shade, muddy dew, or spots of white color – spores of mushrooms such as aspergillosis or penigillas. What to do: treat the affected leaves with alkaline solution (for example, soda) or manganese solution.
The plant died quickly, there were no external signs of disease – most likely, the root system was infected with nematoses. What to do: if the plant left healthy leaves, they can be multiplied and the dead plant can be thrown away together with the ground. The pot should be well disinfected. At the next planting of succulent add charcoal to the soil, follow the watering regime.
Leaf burns – it is likely that you left the plant in the open sun, after winter hibernation, or after shopping in the store. What to do: gradually accustom the plant to bright sunlight.